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Hazrat Umar (R.A)-Biography, Caliph, Achievements & Death

Hazrat Umar ibn al-Khattab, known as Hazrat Umar (R.A.), holds a revered place in Islamic history. His life journey is a testament to courage, wisdom, and unwavering commitment to Islam.

His Physical Appearance

As for his physical characteristics, he was white with a reddish complexion. He was muscular, tall, solid, and bald. He was solid, not weak or puny. When he walked, he walked quickly, when he spoke, he spoke clearly, and when he stuck, he caused pain.

Early Life

Born in Makkah, Hazrat Umar belonged to the esteemed Quraysh tribe. He was known for his strength and courage, earning him respect even before embracing Islam. Initially a staunch opponent of Islam, his heart softened after hearing verses from the Quran.

Conversion to Islam

Hazrat Umar ibn al-Khattab, before accepting Islam, was a staunch opponent of Prophet Muhammad (S.A.W.) and the Islamic faith. He was known for his strength, courage, and firmness in his opposition to Islam. However, his life took a significant turn when he decided to embrace the religion he had vehemently opposed.

The moment of his acceptance of Islam is renowned in Islamic history. Hazrat Umar set out with the intention to confront and harm Prophet Muhammad (S.A.W.) upon learning that his sister and brother-in-law had accepted Islam. On his way, he met someone who informed him that his sister and brother-in-law had embraced Islam.

Furious, he immediately went to his sister’s house and knocked on the door. When they heard him, they hid the verses of the Quran they were reciting. Seeing his sister and brother-in-law’s resolve, Hazrat Umar demanded to know what they were reciting. After some resistance, they eventually revealed that they were reading the Quran. Hazrat Umar, in a state of agitation, struck his brother-in-law and injured his sister.

Yet, witnessing his sister’s unwavering faith and determination, he was moved. When he saw the blood on his sister’s face due to his attack, his heart softened. He asked to see what they were reciting, and upon reading the verses, a transformation occurred within him. The words deeply touched his heart, and at that moment, Hazrat Umar embraced Islam.

His conversion was a momentous event in the history of Islam, as his acceptance strengthened the early Muslim community. Hazrat Umar’s journey from a vehement opponent of Islam to becoming one of its most prominent champions is a powerful testament to the transformative power of faith.

Role during Prophet Muhammad’s (S.A.W.) Time

Hazrat Umar was one of the Prophet’s closest companions. His counsel and support were crucial, and he played a pivotal role in various significant events and battles during the lifetime of Prophet Muhammad (S.A.W.).

His Title “Al-Farooq”

Umar was an expert jurist and is best known for his justice, in the same way for Muslims and non-Muslims. This value earned him the title of ‘Al-Farooq’ (the one who distinguishes between right and wrong).

Caliphate

After the demise of Hazrat Abu Bakar (R.A.), Hazrat Umar ascended to become the second Caliph. His rule witnessed the expansion of the Islamic empire, marking a period of great advancements and administrative reforms.

Leadership and Legacy

Hazrat Umar was known for his justice, simplicity, and dedication to the people. His governance laid the foundation for equitable leadership and public service. He established principles of fairness, accessibility, and concern for the populace.

Achievements

Hazrat Umar (R.A) had a significant impact during his tenure as the second caliph in Islam. Some of his notable achievements include:

  1. Administrative Reforms: He introduced administrative systems, such as diwan (departments), that organized the governance and managed affairs systematically.
  2. Conquests: Under his rule, the Muslim empire expanded significantly, conquering parts of Persia, Syria, Egypt, and other regions.
  3. Judicial Reforms: He established qadis (judges) to ensure justice and fair trials, laying the groundwork for an independent judiciary.
  4. Economic Policies: Umar (R.A) implemented various economic reforms, including stipends for the poor, which contributed to social welfare and poverty alleviation.
  5. Social Welfare: He initiated various social welfare programs to support the needy, ensuring food and resources reached those who required assistance.
  6. Construction Projects: Umar (R.A) undertook various construction projects, including the building of canals, marketplaces, and roads, which improved infrastructure.
  7. Educational Advancements: He encouraged education, leading to the establishment of schools and educational institutions across the expanding Islamic empire.
  8. Personal Example: His lifestyle was simple and exemplary, reflecting the values of humility and integrity.

These achievements collectively contributed to the strength and expansion of the Islamic State, leaving a lasting legacy in governance, justice, and social welfare.

His Martyrdom

Hazrat Umar (R.A.) was martyred while leading the Fajr prayer in the Masjid al-Nabawi (Prophet’s Mosque) in Medina. He was attacked by a Persian slave named Abu Luluah Firuz. Abu Luluah managed to strike Hazrat Umar with a poisoned dagger multiple times, causing severe injuries. The injuries were fatal, and Hazrat Umar (R.A.) passed away a few days later due to these wounds, on the 26th of Dhul-Hijjah, 23 AH (November 644 CE). His passing was a great loss for the Muslim community. He is among the “Ten Promised Paradise,” revered for his piety and exemplary leadership.

Hazrat Umar’s life remains a source of inspiration for Muslims globally. His leadership, valor, and commitment to justice have left an indelible mark in Islamic history, making him a role model for future generations.

FAQs

Who was Hazrat Umar (R.A)?
Hazrat Umar (R.A) was the second caliph of Islam and one of the closest companions of Prophet Muhammad (S.A.W). He played a pivotal role in the early Islamic period and contributed significantly to the expansion and governance of the Islamic empire.

What was Hazrat Umar (R.A)’s title?
He was famously known as “Al-Farooq,” meaning the one who distinguishes truth from falsehood.

What were Hazrat Umar (R.A)’s contributions to Islam?
Umar (R.A.) made significant administrative, judicial, and economic reforms during his caliphate. He expanded the Islamic State’s territory and introduced several administrative and social welfare reforms.

What was the relationship between Hazrat Umar (R.A) and Prophet Muhammad (S.A.W)?
Hazrat Umar (R.A) was an early convert to Islam and had a close relationship with Prophet Muhammad (S.A.W). He was known for his dedication, loyalty, and love for the Prophet.

What were Hazrat Umar (R.A)’s virtues?
He was known for his justice, wisdom, humility, and devotion to the welfare of the Muslim community. His simplicity in living and adherence to justice are often praised.

What were some of Hazrat Umar (R.A)’s famous sayings?
Some of his famous quotes include “Take account of yourselves before you are taken to account,” and “I have no concern over what I do not possess.”

How did Hazrat Umar (R.A) pass away?
He was assassinated by a non-Muslim slave while leading the morning prayers in Madinah in 644 AD.

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