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12 Scientific Facts in the Holy Quran

The Quran, the holy book of Islam, is revered by Muslims as the literal word of Allah revealed to Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him). It primarily serves as a guide for spiritual, moral, and ethical matters. While the Quran is not a scientific textbook, many Muslims and scholars believe that it contains verses that align with certain scientific concepts. Here are 13 scientific facts or descriptions often cited from the Quran:

Water

In Surah Al-Anbya, it was revealed: “We created every living being from water. Will they not then believe?” (Quran, 21:30). Interestingly, it was only after the invention of the microscope that scientists concluded that the majority of living organisms are primarily composed of water. This revelation is particularly striking when considering the arid deserts of Arabia, where the notion that all life originates from water would have been the last expectation.

Universe: The Big Bang Theory

In Surah Al-Anbya, Allah (SWT) also conveys, “Have those who disbelieved not considered that the heavens and the earth were once a unified entity, and We separated them” (Quran, 21:30). This verse hints at a remarkable cosmic phenomenon. In 1929, the American astronomer Edwin Hubble presented Hubble’s Law, which posits that all celestial bodies in the universe are receding from Earth at speeds proportionate to their distance. In simpler terms, objects farther from Earth are moving away from us more rapidly.

Soon thereafter, Hubble’s groundbreaking discovery that galaxies themselves were dispersing further apart led to the formulation of the Big Bang theory. According to this theory, some 12-15 billion years ago, the universe originated from a single, extraordinarily hot and dense point. An explosive event from this singularity gave birth to the universe, and it has been expanding ever since.

In a stunning convergence, radio astronomers Arno Penzias and Robert Wilson received the Nobel Prize in 1965 for their discovery, which provided strong evidence confirming the Big Bang theory. When considering the Quranic verse mentioned earlier, it’s remarkable to note that it had already revealed the concept that “the heavens and the earth were once a unified entity, and We separated them.” This alignment between Quranic revelation and scientific discoveries remains awe-inspiring, acknowledging that Allah knows best.

Universe: The Big Crunch Theory

Again, in Surah Al-Anbya, Allah (SWT) Says: “The Day when We will fold the heaven like the folding of a [written] sheet for the records. As We begin the first creation, We will repeat it. [That is] a promise binding upon Us. Indeed, We will do it” (Quran, 21:104). This verse remarkably aligns with the concept of the Big Crunch, a theory proposing the universe’s ultimate fate of contracting back into a minuscule, dense state, reminiscent of a cosmic rebirth.

The Big Crunch stands as one of the scenarios envisioned by scientists for the universe’s possible culmination. Like numerous other theories, it draws its foundation from Einstein’s Theory of General Relativity. Just as the Big Bang is thought to elucidate the universe’s inception, the Big Crunch speculates on how the universe will conclude as an outcome of that initial event—a concept eloquently articulated in the Quranic verse cited above.

Embryology

In Surah Al-Mu’minun, Allah (SWT) says, “We fashioned humankind from an extract of clay. Then We placed him as a sperm-drop in a firm lodging. Then We made the sperm-drop into a clinging clot, and We made the clot into a fleshy tissue…” (Quran 23:12-14).

This profound Quranic passage finds striking resonance with the advancements of modern science, which have been made possible through the latest technological innovations. Professor Emeritus Keith L. Moore, a prominent figure in the fields of anatomy and embryology, affirms, “It is evident to me that these statements must have been conveyed to Muhammad by Allah, for much of this knowledge had not been unearthed until many centuries later.”

The Sky’s Protection

In Surah Al-Anbya, Allah (SWT) says, “And We established the sky as a protective canopy, yet they are turning away from its signs” (Quran 21:32). Remarkably, modern science substantiates this Quranic statement, emphasizing that the Earth’s atmosphere, composed of various gases, serves as a shield guarding our planet and its life forms against the sun’s harmful radiation. Without this protective layer, life on Earth would be untenable, with temperatures plummeting to an arctic -270.556°C, akin to the frigid conditions of outer space.

Iron within Meteorites

In Surah Al-Hadid, it is written: “We sent down Iron with its extraordinary strength and its numerous advantages for humanity” (Quran 57:25). According to M. E. Walrath, iron is not naturally occurring on Earth. Scientists assert that billions of years ago, our planet was impacted by meteorites, and it was within these celestial bodies that iron was originally found. As a result of these celestial collisions on Earth, iron became available to us. The Quran, as highlighted earlier, had already illuminated this fact by stating, “We sent down iron with its remarkable inherent strength.”

The Meeting of the Seas

In Surah Ar-Rahman, it is mentioned, “He has let loose the two seas, converging together, yet there is a barrier between them which they do not transgress” (Quran, 55:19-20). Scientific investigations have unveiled that at locations where two distinct bodies of water merge, a natural partition emerges, preserving the unique temperature, salinity, and density of each sea.

Sun Moving in Orbit

In Surah Al-Anbya, it is mentioned, “And it is He who created the night and the day and the sun and the moon; all heavenly bodies are swimming in an orbit” (Quran, 21:33). While this understanding was not widely accepted until the 20th century, today, it is firmly established in the field of astronomy that the Sun, the Moon, and all celestial bodies in the Universe are indeed in constant motion, orbiting rather than remaining stationary as was commonly believed in the past.

Mountains as Stakes

In Surah An-Naba, Allah (SWT) states, “Have We not made the earth a stable abode? And [have We] set the mountains as pegs?” (Quran, 78:6-7). Geophysicist Frank Press, in his book ‘Earth’ (1986), elucidates how mountains resemble sturdy pegs, firmly anchored deep within the Earth’s crust. For instance, Mount Everest, towering approximately 9 kilometers above sea level, possesses roots that delve even deeper, extending more than 125 kilometers below the surface. This serves to underscore the Quranic revelation regarding the significance and robustness of mountains on our planet.

Expansion of the Universe

In Surah Adh-Dhariyat, Allah (SWT) states, “And the heavens We built with strength, and verily, We are [its] expander” (Quran, 51:47). In his book ‘A Brief History of Time,’ the renowned physicist Stephen Hawking acknowledges, “The revelation that the universe is expanding marked one of the profound intellectual revolutions of the 20th century.” Remarkably, centuries before, the Quran had already unveiled to us the concept that in relation to the universe, “We are its expander.”

Pain Receptors

In Surah An-Nisa, it is stated, “We will send those who deny Our revelations to the fire, where, when their skins are roasted, We shall replace them with new skins so that they may feel the torment. Surely Allah is most powerful and all-wise” (Quran, 4:56).

Traditionally, it was believed that the perception of pain was solely linked to the brain. Nonetheless, recent discoveries have revealed the presence of pain receptors in the skin. Without these pain receptors, an individual would be incapable of experiencing pain. This serves as yet another compelling example of the Quran’s remarkable alignment with scientific understanding.

Internal Waves in the Oceans

In Surah An-Nur, Allah (SWT) has revealed: “Or [they are] like darknesses within an unfathomable sea which is covered by waves, upon which are waves, over which are clouds – darknesses, some of them upon others. When one puts out his hand [therein], he can hardly see it. And he to whom Allah has not granted light – for him, there is no light” (Quran, 24:40).

Remarkably, oceanographers have asserted that contrary to the common belief that waves are only visible on the ocean’s surface, there exist internal waves beneath the water’s surface, invisible to the naked eye and detectable only through specialized equipment.

Conclusion

These scientific facts in the Quran discovered long before the advent of modern science, serve as a testament to the Quran’s divine origin, according to Islamic belief. While the Quran primarily serves as a guide for faith and morality, its alignment with scientific knowledge offers a thought-provoking example of the harmony between religion and science. These verses continue to spark curiosity and admiration among those who explore the intersection of faith and reason.

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